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模型组装

本指南介绍了如何在测试和推理过程中使用YOLOv5 🚀模型集合来提高 mAP 和 Recall。

来自https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ensemble_learning:

集合建模是通过使用多种不同的建模算法或使用不同的训练数据集创建多个不同模型来预测结果的过程。然后,集合模型汇总每个基础模型的预测结果,最后得出对未见数据的最终预测结果。使用集合模型的动机是减少预测的泛化误差。只要基础模型是多样且独立的,使用集合方法时模型的预测误差就会减小。在进行预测时,这种方法寻求的是众人的智慧。尽管集合模型内部有多个基础模型,但它的作用和性能与单个模型相同。

开始之前

克隆 repo 并将requirements.txt安装在 Python>=3.8.0环境中安装 requirements txt,包括 PyTorch>=1.8.模型和数据集会自动从最新的YOLOv5 版本下载。

git clone https://github.com/ultralytics/yolov5  # clone
cd yolov5
pip install -r requirements.txt  # install

正常测试

在组合之前,我们希望确定单一模型的基准性能。此命令在 COCO val2017 上测试 YOLOv5x,图像大小为 640 像素。 yolov5x.pt 是目前最大、最精确的模型。其他选项包括 yolov5s.pt, yolov5m.pt 和 yolov5l.pt或您自己在训练自定义数据集时的检查点 ./weights/best.pt.有关所有可用型号的详细信息,请参阅我们的 README。 桌.

python val.py --weights yolov5x.pt --data coco.yaml --img 640 --half

输出:

val: data=./data/coco.yaml, weights=['yolov5x.pt'], batch_size=32, imgsz=640, conf_thres=0.001, iou_thres=0.65, task=val, device=, single_cls=False, augment=False, verbose=False, save_txt=False, save_hybrid=False, save_conf=False, save_json=True, project=runs/val, name=exp, exist_ok=False, half=True
YOLOv5 🚀 v5.0-267-g6a3ee7c torch 1.9.0+cu102 CUDA:0 (Tesla P100-PCIE-16GB, 16280.875MB)

Fusing layers...
Model Summary: 476 layers, 87730285 parameters, 0 gradients

val: Scanning '../datasets/coco/val2017' images and labels...4952 found, 48 missing, 0 empty, 0 corrupted: 100% 5000/5000 [00:01<00:00, 2846.03it/s]
val: New cache created: ../datasets/coco/val2017.cache
               Class     Images     Labels          P          R     mAP@.5 mAP@.5:.95: 100% 157/157 [02:30<00:00,  1.05it/s]
                 all       5000      36335      0.746      0.626       0.68       0.49
Speed: 0.1ms pre-process, 22.4ms inference, 1.4ms NMS per image at shape (32, 3, 640, 640)  # <--- baseline speed

Evaluating pycocotools mAP... saving runs/val/exp/yolov5x_predictions.json...
...
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.504  # <--- baseline mAP
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50      | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.688
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.75      | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.546
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= small | maxDets=100 ] = 0.351
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=medium | maxDets=100 ] = 0.551
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= large | maxDets=100 ] = 0.644
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=  1 ] = 0.382
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets= 10 ] = 0.628
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.681  # <--- baseline mAR
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= small | maxDets=100 ] = 0.524
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=medium | maxDets=100 ] = 0.735
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= large | maxDets=100 ] = 0.826

合奏测试

在测试和推理时,只需将额外的模型附加到 --weights 参数在任何现有的 val.py 或 detect.py 命令中使用。本例将测试两个模型的集合:

  • YOLOv5x
  • YOLOv5l6
python val.py --weights yolov5x.pt yolov5l6.pt --data coco.yaml --img 640 --half

输出:

val: data=./data/coco.yaml, weights=['yolov5x.pt', 'yolov5l6.pt'], batch_size=32, imgsz=640, conf_thres=0.001, iou_thres=0.6, task=val, device=, single_cls=False, augment=False, verbose=False, save_txt=False, save_hybrid=False, save_conf=False, save_json=True, project=runs/val, name=exp, exist_ok=False, half=True
YOLOv5 🚀 v5.0-267-g6a3ee7c torch 1.9.0+cu102 CUDA:0 (Tesla P100-PCIE-16GB, 16280.875MB)

Fusing layers...
Model Summary: 476 layers, 87730285 parameters, 0 gradients  # Model 1
Fusing layers...
Model Summary: 501 layers, 77218620 parameters, 0 gradients  # Model 2
Ensemble created with ['yolov5x.pt', 'yolov5l6.pt']  # Ensemble notice

val: Scanning '../datasets/coco/val2017.cache' images and labels... 4952 found, 48 missing, 0 empty, 0 corrupted: 100% 5000/5000 [00:00<00:00, 49695545.02it/s]
               Class     Images     Labels          P          R     mAP@.5 mAP@.5:.95: 100% 157/157 [03:58<00:00,  1.52s/it]
                 all       5000      36335      0.747      0.637      0.692      0.502
Speed: 0.1ms pre-process, 39.5ms inference, 2.0ms NMS per image at shape (32, 3, 640, 640)  # <--- ensemble speed

Evaluating pycocotools mAP... saving runs/val/exp3/yolov5x_predictions.json...
...
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.515  # <--- ensemble mAP
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50      | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.699
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.75      | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.557
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= small | maxDets=100 ] = 0.356
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=medium | maxDets=100 ] = 0.563
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= large | maxDets=100 ] = 0.668
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=  1 ] = 0.387
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets= 10 ] = 0.638
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.689  # <--- ensemble mAR
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= small | maxDets=100 ] = 0.526
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=medium | maxDets=100 ] = 0.743
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= large | maxDets=100 ] = 0.844

集合推理

将额外的模型追加到 --weights 参数来运行集合推理:

python detect.py --weights yolov5x.pt yolov5l6.pt --img 640 --source data/images

输出:

YOLOv5 🚀 v5.0-267-g6a3ee7c torch 1.9.0+cu102 CUDA:0 (Tesla P100-PCIE-16GB, 16280.875MB)

Fusing layers...
Model Summary: 476 layers, 87730285 parameters, 0 gradients
Fusing layers...
Model Summary: 501 layers, 77218620 parameters, 0 gradients
Ensemble created with ['yolov5x.pt', 'yolov5l6.pt']

image 1/2 /content/yolov5/data/images/bus.jpg: 640x512 4 persons, 1 bus, 1 tie, Done. (0.063s)
image 2/2 /content/yolov5/data/images/zidane.jpg: 384x640 3 persons, 2 ties, Done. (0.056s)
Results saved to runs/detect/exp2
Done. (0.223s)

YOLO 推理结果

支持的环境

Ultralytics 提供了一系列随时可用的环境,每个环境都预装了CUDA、CUDNN、 Python和 PyTorch等基本依赖项,以启动您的项目。

项目现状

YOLOv5 CI

此徽章表示YOLOv5 GitHub Actions 的所有持续集成(CI)测试均已成功通过。这些 CI 测试严格检查了YOLOv5 在训练、验证、推理、导出和基准等多个关键方面的功能和性能。它们确保在 macOS、Windows 和 Ubuntu 上运行的一致性和可靠性,每 24 小时和每次新提交时都会进行一次测试。



创建于 2023-11-12,更新于 2024-01-07
作者:glenn-jocher(5)、sergiuwaxmann(1)

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