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测试时间增强(TTA)

本指南介绍了如何在测试和推理过程中使用测试时间扩展 (TTA),通过YOLOv5 🚀 改善 mAP 和 Recall。

开始之前

克隆 repo 并将requirements.txt安装在 Python>=3.8.0环境中安装 requirements txt,包括 PyTorch>=1.8.模型数据集会自动从最新的YOLOv5 版本下载。

git clone https://github.com/ultralytics/yolov5  # clone
cd yolov5
pip install -r requirements.txt  # install

正常测试

在尝试 TTA 之前,我们需要建立一个基准性能来进行比较。此命令在 COCO val2017 上测试 YOLOv5x,图像大小为 640 像素。 yolov5x.pt 是目前最大、最精确的模型。其他选项包括 yolov5s.pt, yolov5m.ptyolov5l.pt或您自己在训练自定义数据集时的检查点 ./weights/best.pt.有关所有可用型号的详细信息,请参阅我们的 README。 .

python val.py --weights yolov5x.pt --data coco.yaml --img 640 --half

输出:

val: data=./data/coco.yaml, weights=['yolov5x.pt'], batch_size=32, imgsz=640, conf_thres=0.001, iou_thres=0.65, task=val, device=, single_cls=False, augment=False, verbose=False, save_txt=False, save_hybrid=False, save_conf=False, save_json=True, project=runs/val, name=exp, exist_ok=False, half=True
YOLOv5 🚀 v5.0-267-g6a3ee7c torch 1.9.0+cu102 CUDA:0 (Tesla P100-PCIE-16GB, 16280.875MB)

Fusing layers...
Model Summary: 476 layers, 87730285 parameters, 0 gradients

val: Scanning '../datasets/coco/val2017' images and labels...4952 found, 48 missing, 0 empty, 0 corrupted: 100% 5000/5000 [00:01<00:00, 2846.03it/s]
val: New cache created: ../datasets/coco/val2017.cache
               Class     Images     Labels          P          R     mAP@.5 mAP@.5:.95: 100% 157/157 [02:30<00:00,  1.05it/s]
                 all       5000      36335      0.746      0.626       0.68       0.49
Speed: 0.1ms pre-process, 22.4ms inference, 1.4ms NMS per image at shape (32, 3, 640, 640)  # <--- baseline speed

Evaluating pycocotools mAP... saving runs/val/exp/yolov5x_predictions.json...
...
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.504  # <--- baseline mAP
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50      | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.688
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.75      | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.546
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= small | maxDets=100 ] = 0.351
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=medium | maxDets=100 ] = 0.551
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= large | maxDets=100 ] = 0.644
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=  1 ] = 0.382
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets= 10 ] = 0.628
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.681  # <--- baseline mAR
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= small | maxDets=100 ] = 0.524
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=medium | maxDets=100 ] = 0.735
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= large | maxDets=100 ] = 0.826

使用 TTA 测试

附加 --augment 到任何现有的 val.py 命令启用 TTA,并将图像尺寸增大约 30%,以改善结果。请注意,启用 TTA 后的推理时间通常是正常推理时间的 2-3 倍,因为图像是在 3 种不同分辨率下左右翻转和处理的,并在 NMS 之前合并输出。速度下降的部分原因是图像尺寸增大(832 对 640),而另一部分原因是实际的 TTA 操作。

python val.py --weights yolov5x.pt --data coco.yaml --img 832 --augment --half

输出:

val: data=./data/coco.yaml, weights=['yolov5x.pt'], batch_size=32, imgsz=832, conf_thres=0.001, iou_thres=0.6, task=val, device=, single_cls=False, augment=True, verbose=False, save_txt=False, save_hybrid=False, save_conf=False, save_json=True, project=runs/val, name=exp, exist_ok=False, half=True
YOLOv5 🚀 v5.0-267-g6a3ee7c torch 1.9.0+cu102 CUDA:0 (Tesla P100-PCIE-16GB, 16280.875MB)

Fusing layers...
/usr/local/lib/python3.7/dist-packages/torch/nn/functional.py:718: UserWarning: Named tensors and all their associated APIs are an experimental feature and subject to change. Please do not use them for anything important until they are released as stable. (Triggered internally at  /pytorch/c10/core/TensorImpl.h:1156.)
  return torch.max_pool2d(input, kernel_size, stride, padding, dilation, ceil_mode)
Model Summary: 476 layers, 87730285 parameters, 0 gradients
val: Scanning '../datasets/coco/val2017' images and labels...4952 found, 48 missing, 0 empty, 0 corrupted: 100% 5000/5000 [00:01<00:00, 2885.61it/s]
val: New cache created: ../datasets/coco/val2017.cache
               Class     Images     Labels          P          R     mAP@.5 mAP@.5:.95: 100% 157/157 [07:29<00:00,  2.86s/it]
                 all       5000      36335      0.718      0.656      0.695      0.503
Speed: 0.2ms pre-process, 80.6ms inference, 2.7ms NMS per image at shape (32, 3, 832, 832)  # <--- TTA speed

Evaluating pycocotools mAP... saving runs/val/exp2/yolov5x_predictions.json...
...
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.516  # <--- TTA mAP
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50      | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.701
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.75      | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.562
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= small | maxDets=100 ] = 0.361
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=medium | maxDets=100 ] = 0.564
 Average Precision  (AP) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= large | maxDets=100 ] = 0.656
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=  1 ] = 0.388
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets= 10 ] = 0.640
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=   all | maxDets=100 ] = 0.696  # <--- TTA mAR
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= small | maxDets=100 ] = 0.553
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area=medium | maxDets=100 ] = 0.744
 Average Recall     (AR) @[ IoU=0.50:0.95 | area= large | maxDets=100 ] = 0.833

使用 TTA 进行推理

detect.py TTA 推理与 val.py TTA:只需附加 --augment 到任何现有的 detect.py 指挥:

python detect.py --weights yolov5s.pt --img 832 --source data/images --augment

输出:

YOLOv5 🚀 v5.0-267-g6a3ee7c torch 1.9.0+cu102 CUDA:0 (Tesla P100-PCIE-16GB, 16280.875MB)

Downloading https://github.com/ultralytics/yolov5/releases/download/v5.0/yolov5s.pt to yolov5s.pt...
100% 14.1M/14.1M [00:00<00:00, 81.9MB/s]

Fusing layers...
Model Summary: 224 layers, 7266973 parameters, 0 gradients
image 1/2 /content/yolov5/data/images/bus.jpg: 832x640 4 persons, 1 bus, 1 fire hydrant, Done. (0.029s)
image 2/2 /content/yolov5/data/images/zidane.jpg: 480x832 3 persons, 3 ties, Done. (0.024s)
Results saved to runs/detect/exp
Done. (0.156s)

YOLOv5 增加测试时间

PyTorch Hub TTA

TTA 自动集成到所有 YOLOv5 PyTorch Hub 模型,并可通过传递 augment=True 在推理时

import torch

# Model
model = torch.hub.load('ultralytics/yolov5', 'yolov5s')  # or yolov5m, yolov5x, custom

# Images
img = 'https://ultralytics.com/images/zidane.jpg'  # or file, PIL, OpenCV, numpy, multiple

# Inference
results = model(img, augment=True)  # <--- TTA inference

# Results
results.print()  # or .show(), .save(), .crop(), .pandas(), etc.

定制

您可以在YOLOv5 forward_augment() 方法 这里.

支持的环境

Ultralytics 提供了一系列随时可用的环境,每个环境都预装了CUDACUDNNPythonPyTorch等基本依赖项,以启动您的项目。

项目现状

YOLOv5 CI

此徽章表示YOLOv5 GitHub Actions 的所有持续集成(CI)测试均已成功通过。这些 CI 测试严格检查了YOLOv5 在训练验证推理导出基准等多个关键方面的功能和性能。它们确保在 macOS、Windows 和 Ubuntu 上运行的一致性和可靠性,每 24 小时和每次新提交时都会进行一次测试。



创建于 2023-11-12,更新于 2023-12-03
作者:glenn-jocher(4)

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